Application Notes

Thermopile Sensor Physics

Technical Notes

Thermopile sensors are based on thermocouples. A thermocouple consists of two dissimilar metals connected in series. To detect radiation, one metal junction is typically blackened to absorb the radiation.

Pyroelectric Sensor Physics

Technical Notes

A pyroelectric crystalline material has electric polarization even in the absence of an applied voltage. On heating, the material expands and produces a change in the polarization which builds up a charge on the opposite surface.

Photodiode Sensor Physics

Technical Notes

A photodiode sensor consists of a semiconductor p-n junction. Light falling on the junction causes the formation of electron-hole pairs. In photovoltaic mode, the electron-hole pairs migrate to opposite sides of the junction, producing a voltage.

LED Characterization

Technical Notes

Measurement techniques of the power, flux (equivalent to power but measured in units of lumens), and spectrum of LEDs is not very different from that of traditional light sources.

Laser Beam Spatial Profiles

Technical Notes

The irradiance distribution of a laser beam is determined by the transverse modes that exit the laser cavity. Typically, the lowest-order transverse mode (TEM00) is selected for emission since it propagates with the least beam divergence and can be f...

Light Collection and Systems Throughput

Tutorials

This discussion is restricted to the general use of Incoherent Light Sources, such as arc lamp or quartz tungsten halogen sources. Diffraction and coherent effects are excluded. The emphasis throughout this section will be on the collection of light.

Diffraction Grating Physics

Tutorials

A typical diffraction grating consists of a substrate with a large number of parallel grooves ruled or replicated in its surface and overcoated with a reflecting material such as aluminum. The quality and spacing of the grooves are crucial to the per...

Optical Power Measurement

Tutorials

When a photon hits the photodiode material, it may generate an electron-hole pair depending on the quantum efficiency of the device. Quantum efficiency is dependent on many factors, but in general if the energy of the photon, E = hv, is greater than ...

PMManager™ Power Meter Application Software

Tutorials

PMManager is a powerful application software controlling and taking measurement data, compatible with models 1919-R, 843-R-USB and 841-PE-USB.

Optical Power Meter Guide

Selection Guides

Our offering ranges from a low cost, hand-held meter to the most advanced dual channel benchtop power meter available in market. Our 1936-R/2936-R series boasts state-of-the-art analog boards with a whopping 250 kHz sampling rate and femtowatt level ...
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