Tutorials

Fiber Optic Basics

 

Tutorials

Optical fibers are circular dielectric wave-guides that can transport optical energy and information. They have a central core surrounded by a concentric cladding with slightly lower refractive index.

Light Collection and Systems Throughput

 

Tutorials

This discussion is restricted to the general use of Incoherent Light Sources, such as arc lamp or quartz tungsten halogen sources. Diffraction and coherent effects are excluded. The emphasis throughout this section will be on the collection of light.

Laser Diode Technology

 

Tutorials

Low-power laser diodes come in a variety of packages. Most have a monitor photodiode integrated with the laser diode. Generally, laser diodes emit light from both ends of their cavity. By monitoring the rear facet output beam of the laser diode, one ...

Grating Physics

 

Tutorials

A typical diffraction grating consists of a substrate with a large number of parallel grooves ruled or replicated in its surface and overcoated with a reflecting material such as aluminum. The quality and spacing of the grooves are crucial to the per...

Optical Power Measurement

 

Tutorials

When a photon hits the photodiode material, it may generate an electron-hole pair depending on the quantum efficiency of the device. Quantum efficiency is dependent on many factors, but in general if the energy of the photon, E = hv, is greater than ...

PMManager™ Power Meter Application Software

 

Tutorials

PMManager is a powerful application software controlling and taking measurement data, compatible with models 1919-R, 843-R-USB and 841-PE-USB.

Vibration Control Definitions of Characteristics

 

Tutorials

This glossary covers the important terms related to vibration control.

Getting Light into a Monochromator

 

Tutorials

In this section we give a brief introduction to getting light into a monochromator, and how much you can expect to get out. While the emphasis is on coupling Oriel Light Sources to Oriel Monochromators, the same general principles apply to collecting...

Polarization in Fiber Optics

 

Tutorials

A beam of light can be thought of as being composed of two orthogonal electrical vector field components that vary in amplitude and frequency. Polarized light occurs when these two components differ in phase or amplitude. Polarization in optical fibe...

Introduction to Solar Radiation

 

Tutorials

Radiation from the sun sustains life on earth and determines climate. The energy flow within the sun results in a surface temperature of around 5800 K, so the spectrum of the radiation from the sun is similar to that of a 5800 K blackbody with fine s...

Introduction to Positioning Equipment

 

Tutorials

This tutorial introduces opto-mechanical component design basics and will familiarize the reader with the issues that need consideration in the selection of the most commonly used tabletop components. It emphasizes practical issues, not mathematical ...

Calculating Output Power

 

Tutorials

You can estimate the power in the collimated beams* at any wavelength or in any wavelength range from our Series Q, Apex, or Research Lamp Housings with any of our CW and pulsed arc, quartz tungsten halogen or deuterium lamps.

Resolution of Monochromators and Spectrographs

 

Tutorials

Gratings are available in various groove densities (i.e. lines/mm). Higher groove densities give higher reciprocal dispersion and therefore higher resolution. The grating dispersion is similar for gratings with the same groove density. The exact disp...

Fundamentals of Vibration

 

Tutorials

Vibration and vibration isolation are both intimately connected with the phenomenon of resonance and simple harmonic motion. A simple example of harmonic motion is a mass connected to a flexible cantilevered beam. External force, either from a one-...

High Speed Detectors

 

Tutorials

There are many common parameters one considers when selecting a detector for a particular application. These include pulsewidth, bandwidth, responsivity, spectral sensitivity, noise level, linearity, power handling, bias voltage, power consumption, t...

Laws of Radiation

 

Tutorials

Everything radiates and absorbs electro-magnetic radiation. Many important radiation laws are based on the performance of a perfect steady state emitter called a blackbody or full radiator. These have smoothly varying spectra that follow a set of law...

How the Picomotor Actuator Works

 

Tutorials

The Picomotor's actuator relies on the basic difference between dynamic and static friction. A graphic example of this is the “tablecloth trick,” in which a quick pull of the cloth leaves the dishes on the table (low dynamic friction), while a slow p...

Environmental Vibration Criteria

 

Tutorials

These generic criterion curves have been developed on the basis of data from individual systems and measurements made in facilities both before and after vibration problems had been solved. Moreover, they have been used extensively by leading vibrati...

Understanding the Compliance Curve

 

Tutorials

No actual structure is a perfectly rigid body - all structures vibrate by flexing and twisting. The response of structures to random vibrations can be quite complicated because they vibrate with complex deformations and have more than one resonant fr...

Integrating Sphere Fundamentals and Applications

 

Tutorials

An integrating sphere collects electromagnetic radiation from a source completely external to the optical device, usually for flux measurement or optical attenuation. Radiation introduced into an integrating sphere strikes the reflective walls and un...
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