Technical Notes

Gaussian Beam Optics

 Technical Note
The Gaussian has no obvious boundaries to give it a characteristic dimension like the diameter of the circular aperture, so the definition of the size of a Gaussian is somewhat arbitrary. Figure 1 shows the Gaussian intensity distribution of a typica

Focusing and Collimating

 Technical Note
As a first example, we look at a common application, the focusing of a laser beam to a small spot. The situation is shown in Figure 5. Here we have a laser beam, with radius y1 and divergence θ1 that is focused by a lens of focal length f. From the f

Optics Formulas

 Technical Note
Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave. The electric E and magnetic M fields are perpendicular to each other and to the propagation vector k, as shown below. Power density is given by Poynting’s vector, P, the vector product of E and H. You can e

Introduction to FTIR Spectroscopy

 Technical Note
An FT-IR Spectrometer is an instrument which acquires broadband NIR to FIR spectra. Unlike a dispersive instrument, i.e. grating monochromator or spectrograph, FT-IR Spectrometers collect all wavelengths simultaneously. This feature is called the Mul

Optical Surfaces

 Technical Note
The lens application drives the requirements for surface irregularity and surface quality. When preservation of wavefront is critical, λ/4 to λ/8 irregularity should be selected; when wavefront is not as important as cost, λ/2 irregularity can be use

Fiber Optic Coupling

 Technical Note
The problem of coupling light into an optical fiber is really two separate problems. In one case, we have the problem of coupling into multimode fibers, where the ray optics of the previous section can be used. In the other case, coupling into single

Optical Materials

 Technical Note
Newport offers a wide variety of spherical and aspherical lenses made from BK 7, UV grade fused silica, Infrared grade Calcium Fluoride (CaF2), Magnesium Fluoride (MgF2), AMTR and Zinc Selenide materials. For applications in the visible and infrared

Polarization

 Technical Note
The interaction of light with the atoms or molecules of a material is wavelength dependent. A consequence of this dependence is the resonant interactions related to material dispersion. Another consequence of such resonant interaction is birefringenc

How to Clean Optics - Technical Note

 Technical Note
Dust and stains on Optics can cause scattering, and impurities on the optic surface can react with incident laser light to damage optical coatings. With proper handling and cleaning of your optics, you can prevent damage and ensure their continued pe

Beam Shaping with Cylindrical Lenses

 Technical Note
Cylindrical Lenses focus or expand light in one axis only. They can be used to focus light into a thin line in optical metrology, laser scanning, spectroscopic, laser diode, acousto-optic, and optical processor applications. They can also be used to
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