A typical diffraction grating consists of a substrate with a large number of parallel grooves ruled or replicated in its surface and overcoated with a reflecting material such as aluminum. The quality and spacing of the grooves are crucial to the per
Low-power laser diodes come in a variety of packages. Most have a monitor photodiode integrated with the laser diode. Generally, laser diodes emit light from both ends of their cavity. By monitoring the rear facet output beam of the laser diode, one
Vibration and vibration isolation are both intimately connected with the phenomenon of resonance and simple harmonic motion. A simple example of harmonic motion is a mass connected to a flexible cantilevered beam. External force, either from a one-
Radiation from the sun sustains life on earth and determines climate. The energy flow within the sun results in a surface temperature of around 5800 K, so the spectrum of the radiation from the sun is similar to that of a 5800 K blackbody with fine s
This discussion is restricted to the general use of Incoherent Light Sources, such as arc lamp or quartz tungsten halogen sources. Diffraction and coherent effects are excluded. The emphasis throughout this section will be on the collection of light.
A beam of light can be thought of as being composed of two orthogonal electrical vector field components that vary in amplitude and frequency. Polarized light occurs when these two components differ in phase or amplitude. Polarization in optical fibe
When a photon hits the photodiode material, it may generate an electron-hole pair depending on the quantum efficiency of the device. Quantum efficiency is dependent on many factors, but in general if the energy of the photon, E = hv, is greater than