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A thermopile sensor has a series of bimetallic junctions. A temperature difference between any two junctions causes a voltage to be formed between the two junctions. Since the junctions are in series and the hot junctions are always on the inner, hotter side, and the cold junctions are on the outer, cooler side, radial heat flow on the disc causes a voltage proportional to the power input. Laser power impinges on the center of the thermopile sensor disk (on the reverse side of the thermopile), flows radially and is cooled on the periphery. The array of thermocouples measures the temperature gradient, which is proportional to the incident or absorbed power. In principle, the reading is not dependent on the ambient temperature since only the temperature difference affects the voltage generated and the voltage difference depends only on the heat flow, not on the ambient temperature.
Since all the heat absorbed flows through the thermocouples (as long as the laser beam is inside the inner circle of hot junctions), the response of the detector is almost independent of beam size and position. If the beam is close to the edge of the inner circle, some thermocouples become hotter than others but since the sum of all of them is measured, the reading remains the same. Generally, we specify ±2% uniformity of reading over the surface or better.
Using Thermoplie Sensors to Measure Single Shot Energy
Although thermopile laser power sensors are used primarily to measure power, they can also measure single shot energy, where they integrate the power flowing through the disc over time. Since the typical time it takes for the disc to heat up and cool down is several seconds, these thermal sensors can only measure one pulse every several seconds at most. Thus they are suitable for what is called single shot measurement. Although the response time of the sensor discs is slow, there is no limit to how short the pulses measured are since the measurement is of the heat flowing through the disc after the pulse.
Types of Thermopile Discs
There is no single absorber which meets the needs of all laser power measurment applications. Several types of absorbers are available for different applications, such as long pulses (0.1-10ms), short pulses (<1µs) and continuous radiation. Absorbers optimized for long pulses and CW are characterized by thin, refractory materials, since the heat can flow through the coating and into the disc during the pulse. On the other hand, heat cannot flow during short pulses, and all the energy is deposited in a thin (typically 0.1µm) layer near the surface. This causes vaporization of the surface which ruins the absorber. Instead, a volume absorber that is partially transparent and absorbs over a distance of 50µm -3mm is used. This spreads the heat over a larger volume allowing much higher energies.
Thermopiles can measure from tens of microwatts to Kilowatts. Nevertheless, the thermal range of operation of the discs is limited. If the difference between the hot and cold junction temperature exceeds tens of degrees, the constant heating/cooling of the junctions can cause premature failure in the junctions. In order to accommodate different power ranges, discs of different thicknesses and sizes are used, thick ones for high powers and thin ones for low powers.
The response time of the discs is dependent on their size and shape: larger diameters and thicker discs are slower than thin small diameter ones. The response time is in general dependent on the mass of material which has to heat up in the thin absorber region of the disc vs. the speed the heat flows out of the same region. The response time is approximately proportional to the aperture, i.e. a 50mm aperture disc is three times as slow as an 18mm aperture disc.
Thermal Surface Absorbing Heads
A surface absorber typically consists of an optically absorbing refractory material deposited on a heat conducting substrate of copper or aluminum. When a long pulse of several hundred µs or a continuous laser beam falls on such a surface absorber, the light is absorbed in a very thin layer of the surface typically 0.1 1 µm thickness (see illustration A). Although the light is absorbed in a thin layer and there converted into heat, the pulse is long enough so that while energy is being deposited into the surface layer, heat is also flowing out into the heat conducting substrate and therefore the surface does not heat up excessively. Ophir standard surface absorbers can stand up to 10 Joules/cm2 for 2ms pulses and up to 28 kW/cm2 for low power continuous lasers.
Surface Absorbers for High Power Lasers and Long Pulses
The traditional surface absorbers have a much lower damage threshold at > 1000W, where they can damage at 2-3 kW/cm2. Ophir has developed new coatings that improve the damage threshold for high power lasers. These coatings are denser and have higher heat conductivity than previous coatings. These LP and LP1 coatings also have a much higher damage threshold for long pulses reaching power damage thresholds of up to 100 kW/cm² and 250 J/cm² for 10 ms pulses. Surface absorbers are suitable for pulses longer than ~100 µs.
Surface vs. Volume Absorbers
When measuring a laser with short pulses of tens of µs or less, the heat is deposited in a short time and cannot flow during the pulse. Therefore a surface absorber which absorbs the energy in a thin surface layer is not suitable. All the energy is deposited in a thin layer and that layer is vaporized. In this case, volume absorbers are used. These have traditionally consisted of a neutral density glass thermally bonded to a heat-conducting metallic substrate. The ND glass absorbs the light over a depth of 1-3 mm instead of fractions of a micrometer. Consequently, even with short pulses where there is no heat flow, the light and heat are deposited into a considerable depth of material and therefore the power/energy meter with aa volume absorber is able to withstand much higher energy densities up to 10 Joules/cm2 (see illustration C). These ND glasses form the basis of the Ophir P type absorbers. In addition to the P absorbers, Ophir has PF and SV absorbers that can stand up to higher average powers and power densities as well as EX absorbers for the UV.
Calibration Method and Estimated Accuracy for Ophir High Power Thermopile Sensors
Ophir models 5000W , 10K-W and Comet 10K are calibrated using relatively low power lasers ~ 150 - 300W. Using such low power lasers to calibrate the instrument vs. the high power at which the sensors are used raises the question of calibration accuracy. The following explanation clearly demonstrates that the 5000W, 10K-W and Comet 10K are indeed accurate to ±5% over their measurement range. The 5000W and 10K-W sensors work on the thermopile principle, where the radial heat flow in the absorber disk causes a temperature difference between the hot and cold junctions of the thermopile which in turn causes a voltage difference across the thermopile. Since the instrument is a thermopile voltage generating device, it must be linear at low values of output. Therefore, if it is shown to be linear at powers which are a significant fraction of the maximum power, it will necessarily be linear at very low powers and if the calibration is correct at low powers, it will remain correct at high powers as well. On the other hand, although the output may be linear at low powers, there may be a zero offset that, due to the relatively low output at low powers, will cause an error in calibration.
For example, if calibration is performed at 200W and the output of the sensor is 10µV/W (a typical value) and there is a zero offset of only 1µV, this will cause a calibration error of 10%. Ophirs calibration method always measures the difference between the reading with power applied and without power applied, thus eliminating error due to zero offset. This measurement is taken several times to insure accuracy. The above measurement method assures that the calibration inaccuracy due to measurement errors is less than 1%, comparable to the expected errors in our lower powered sensors.In order to verify this, models L1500W, 5000W, 8000W and 10K-W sensors have been measured by various standards laboratories. These measurements have shown Ophir sensors to be well within the claimed limits of linearity. The Comet 10K series measures the heat rise of the absorbing puck when irradiated by the laser for 10s. In order to calibrate the Comet 10K, we simply irradiate with a lower power laser for longer e.g. 150W for 60s. Thus the heating effect is similar to that of a higher power laser. Tests of the Comet calibrated by this method vs. NIST traceable high power sensors has shown that it is accurate and reproducible.