The PSM2 is a high-speed, tip, tilt, and z motion piezoelectric stage for mirrors, gratings and other optics with sub-microradian resolution. Equipped with a direct piezoelectirc actuation system, minus the lever arm transmission, the PSM2 is ideally suited for high bandwidth laser beam steering, switching and stabilization, beam scanning, image stabilization, and laser cavity tuning.Fast and reliable motion is supplied by three, multi-layer, low-voltage piezo stacks (PZT) in a triangle configuration. The length of each piezo stack can be controlled individually, applying a voltage to one stack, results in a tip or tilt. Changing the length of all three stacks simultaneously, results in a linear z-displacement.For simple operation, the three piezo stacks of the PSM2 are arranged in a right triangle configuration. This results in orthogonal rotation without the need for coordinate transformations that is required in designs where the piezo stacks are placed at 120° intervals.The parallel design of the PSM2 piezo stacks also has the advantage of being fully temperature compensated, i.e. changes in the environmental temperature do not affect the tilting angle. PSM2 units are also maintenance-free and are not subject to wear.The PSM2 is available as an open-loop (no position feedback) or a closed-loop device with an integrated strain gage position feedback. The open-loop version is ideal for applications where the position is controlled by an external sensor, e.g. a lateral effect diode, quad cell, photodiode, CCD camera, etc.The closed-loop version PSM2SG provides absolute position control, high linearity, and high repeatability based on internal strain-gauge position sensors. The position feedback compensates also for actuator creep. For highest position stability and highest temperature-insensitive performance, the sensors are built in a full Wheatstone bridge design. The PSM2SG can be operated in either open or closed-loop control.The PSM2 models are internally preloaded and can be mounted in any orientation. The PSM2 supports mirrors up to 50 mm diameter and can be glued directly to the top plate.